IMS ePortfolio - Summary
In accordance with IMS an ePortfolio, might contain, in addition to actual packaged digital works, these different kinds of information:
- digital and non-digital works created or part-created by the subject;
- the subject of the ePortfolio;
- activities in which the subject has participated, is participating, or plans to participate;
- the competencies (skills, etc.) of the subject;
- the achievements of the subject, whether or not certificated;
- the subject's preferences;
- the subject's goals and plans;
- the subject's interests and values;
- notes, reflections, or assessments relevant to any other part;
- results of any test or examination of the subject;
- contextual information to help the interpretation of any results;
- relationships between the other parts of the information (see elsewhere for discussion);
- the creation and ownership of the parts of the ePortfolio.
|Out of Scope
It is out of scope of this standard:
- ePortfolio services and behaviors.
- Storage of ePortfolio Information
Interoperability of Portfolios as described by IMS is achieved by defining a Portfolio as an IMS Content Package. A Portfolio is defined as a collection of portfolio parts that are collated in an IMS Content Package (the formal binding of the Portfolio to the IMS Content Package is described in the IMS ePortfolio Binding document).
All of the contextual information for a portfolio, e.g., presentation aids, relationships, etc., are also defined within the IMS Content Package. In essence the manifest file for the IMS Content Package is the XML representation of the Portfolio with each of the portfolio parts being supplied as resources in the content package. The following figure gives a schematic representation.
IMS Content Packaging can also be used to exchange more than one Portfolio. Each Portfolio is defined in its own content package i.e. with a single manifest file. Sets of Portfolios are exchanged by creating a top-level content package in which each portfolio package is a resource.
Portfolio is the main class representing an ePortfolio. Portfolio collects the set of information parts described using the PortfolioPart class, and optionally provides a specification for displaying the collection using an instance of the Presentation class.
The relationship between portfolios, owners, views, and presentation as a Content Package is shown in the next figure.
- The Owner class represents, abstractly, that a Portfolio has an Owner, and that an Owner may have more than one Portfolio.
- The Presentation class represents a specification for the presentation of the Portfolio, including the selection and ordering of items from the set of available PortfolioParts and their constituent attributes.
- The View class represents, abstractly, that a View is a type of Portfolio, differing only in the context of use. A View, in practice, represents a subset of a larger collection of PortfolioParts provided for a specific purpose, but which, in expression, is structurally identical to a Portfolio.
- The PortfolioPart class is used to represent the superset of the components of a Portfolio. It can be associated with the following classes: Accessibility, Activity, Affiliation, Assertion, Competency, Goal, QCL, Reflexion, Relationship, Rubric, RubricCell, SecurityKey and Transcript.
This specification deals with the representation of guidance as to how a portfolio has been, or is to be assessed. A rubric carries information about interpretation of merit or the criteria that have been used in the interpretation. That information is carried in statements and a structured model. The word 'guidance' is chosen deliberately since we are not providing a model for assessment schemes in their full glory nor are we providing an information model to support automated evaluation software. The primary consumer of data produced according to this specification is not an assessor, since there would normally be additional elements of guidance and professional expertise, as well as issues of moderation surrounding an actual assessment process.
In the context of the IMS ePortfolio specification, Rubrics constitute one type of PortfolioPart, which may be included within a Portfolio and may be related to other Portfolio Parts. The Rubric Specification is a separate document to acknowledge that the data structure described herein may be useful in other elearning contexts. However, the Rubric Specification explicitly treats Rubrics only in the context of ePortfolios and does not address these other possible uses.