MLO-AD - Overview

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These contents have been obtained from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) official Web site and edited for presentation. Please refer to the CEN official Web site for additional information on terms of use.
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European Commitee for Standardization
Metadata for Learning Opportunities - Advertising (MLO-AD), supported by CEN WS-LT (CWA 15903:2008), is a European standardized model addressing metadata sufficient for advertising a learning opportunity.

MLO-AD was developed by a group of 21 experts from 12 countries and vendors within Europe. The group has aimed at developing a lightweight standard that fits well with existing business processes and technologies. The MLO-AD standard is also designed to facilitate semantic technologies and web architectures to support several mechanisms for exchange of the information and aggregation of information by third party service suppliers. Finally, the goal has been to make the standard easy to implement to ensure a rapid uptake by the European countries.
Scope
The goal of MLO-AD is to provide information about a learning opportunity, to enable the learner to make a decision if there is a need for more information about the learning opportunity, and where to find that information. The standard defines the electronic representation of Learning Opportunities in order to facilitate their advertising and subsequent discovery by prospective learners.

Key users of the standard will be:

  • those who provide opportunities for learning and wish to advertise them;

  • those who offer electronic search services that aggregate results from multiple Learning Opportunity providers;

  • those who wish to compare Learning Opportunities that have been represented electronically.

The model proposed within the standard is not intended to define the electronic representation of Learning Objects in general - the scope of the standard is restricted to definine the electronic representions of Learning Opportunities to facilitate their advertising and subsequent discovery by learners. Metadata collected and presented for the purpose of advertising Learning Opportunities may, of course, be used for other purposes - for instance, providing detailed description of a formal learning opportunity to enrich a transcript that showed a learner's educational history. However, guidance on the pecification and organisation of metadata for purposes other than advertising Learning Opportunities is outside the scope of this standard.
Metadata for Learning Opportunities
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hese contents have been obtained from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) official Web site and edited for presentation. Please refer to the CEN official Web site for additional information on terms of use.
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The MLO-AD standard presents an abstract model for representing Learning Opportunities. The model specifies three resources about which metadata can be stored to facilitate advertising of Learning Opportunities:

  1. Learning Opportunity Provider: An agent (person or organisation) that provides learning opportunities.

  2. Learning Opportunity Specification: An abstract description of a learning opportunity, consisting of information that will be consistent across multiple instances of the learning opportunity.

  3. Learning Opportunity Instance: A single occurrence of a learning opportunity. Unlike a Learning Opportunity Specification, a Learning Opportunity Instance is not abstract, may be bound to particular dates or locations, and may be applied for or participated in by learners.
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Illustration of the domain model of MLO-AD
The standard MLO-AD specifies relations between the three resources and recommends a core set of metadata for each. The metadata elements are selected from the ISO 15836:DC 1.1 schema. The value domains of the standard are selected from the Dublin Core Abstract Model (DCAM) value space.

Extension of the standard is done by inclusion of properties, subproperties, vocabulary encoding schemas and syntax encoding schemas, and by constraining the use of properties. The XML bindings provided in the standard are in RDF and XML format. There are no bindings stated to other relevant schemas.
The standard only describes the datamodel for learning opportunities, and does not give any guidance on the vocabularies that are needed to ensure semantic interoperability between different educational and jurisdictional domains. The reason for not addressing vocabularies is that there is a need for frequently updating and maintaining the vocabularies, and that many vocabularies are mandated by the educational and jurisdictional domains where the standard is used. Therefore all vocabularies will be maintained as separate CEN Workshop Agreements (CWAs) by the CEN WS-LT.
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Title: CWA 15903:2008 - Metadata for Learning Opportunities (MLO) - Advertising
Version: Not applicable
Release Date: 7 November 2008
Editor: Not Applicable
Status: Official CEN Workshop Agreement


Electronic version: Available in pdf format.
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These contents have been obtained from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) official Web site and edited for presentation. Please refer to the CEN official Web site for additional information on terms of use.
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With Dublin Core
The MLO-AD standard is inspired by, and conforms to, DCMI Abstract Model (DCAM).
With Learning Object Metadata
Attention is drawn to the IEEE 1484.12.1 Learning Object Metadata standard for comparison with this standard. There are some similarities, and some areas where similar concepts can be expressed in LOM and MLO-AD.
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This category includes different Application Profiles of the MLO-AD specification.


CWA 16076:2010 ECTS Information Package/Course Catalogue MLO Application Profile
The Bologna process seeks to establish a comparable and compatible European Higher Education area. Guidance documentation created in support of that aim includes a template for describing degree programmes, course units and the Higher Education institutions that offer them, known as the ECTS IP/CC.

This CWA defines refinements to the MLO Information Model for representing the European Credit Transfer Systems Information Package/Course Catalogue (ECTS IP/CC), based on best practice guidance offered to institutions seeking the honorary distinction of an ECTS Label. The ECTS IP/CC MLO Application Profile has as its background the Bologna process intention of creating the European Higher Education Area by making Higher Education more comparable and compatible. The ECTS IP/CC MLO Application Profile specifies refinements to the
Metadata for Learning Opportunities Information Model which facilitate representation of one of the core Bologna documents: the ECTS IP/CC.
CWA16076 ECTS IP/CC MLO AP
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